THERE WERE, AND still are, certain cultures that understood the cyclical nature of time. They knew that the past repeated itself, but without being always exactly the same. Among those cultures are the Andean, Hindu, and Anawak (Mesoamerican). Their understanding of the cyclical nature of time is reflected in their language, which usually offers the best insight into a culture. Unlike history, which can be easily manipulated, language doesn’t lie. Here are some examples:
- In Quechua―the language of the Andes―the same word is used to refer to “*last year*” or “*the most distant year in the future*“. Both concepts are described by the term «qhipa wata».
- In Hindi the same word is used for both ‘yesterday’ and ‘tomorrow’. The term is «kal», derived from the Sanskrit word «kale», which simply means ‘time’.
- In *Nahuatl―*a group of languages from Mexico―there is a proverb that says *“this is how things were and how they will be again, in some place, at some time. Those who are living now will live again” *(Florentine Codex book 6)
All these cultures and civilisations understood that* time* was the dual concept of space, its binary, like the other side of the same coin. As duals, both must share the same set of properties. If space is spherical (round Earth), time will necessarily have to be cyclical. If* time* was lineal, space would need to be flat (flat Earth).
Because of the duality defined by time and space it would be as absurd to have a round Earth coexisting with linear time, as to have a coin with one side round and the other in the shape of a square. Nevertheless, this is what most people currently believe.
*Lineal time *means a past that never repeats itself again and a present that unfolds towards an unknown future. Circular time, in contrast, means that we can move through it in circles *“kunan wata”; *forwards and backwards *“kal”; *and to experience a past event again, that is to say, to live it more than once. This is possible in the same way that we can move forward or backward in space, or that by always moving in a straight line, we end up back at the point of departure.
The three above mentioned civilisations never split* time* and space apart, as we do, and this helped them to travel in* time* in the same way that we travel in space. In contrast with that, it was not until Einstein suggested his general theory of relativity that the West started considering* time* and space as the two sides of the same coin. Only then space-time was born in the Western imaginarium.
Said that, it is important to note that there are other cultures that never had the need to come up even with the concept of time. They never perceived themselves as existing in time as we do. I refer to the Australian aborigines. In none of the approximately 500 languages that were spoken in Australia when the Europeans arrived did the concepts of ‘past’ or ‘future’ exist. In fact, in those languages not even the concept of ‘time’ was present. They maintained the wisdom of children who always live in the ‘here’ and ‘now’ and not in ‘tomorrow’ or ‘yesterday’. When they are not speaking of the ‘here’, defined by the reality that surrounds us, it is because they are talking about the ‘Dreamtime’, a place where *past, present, and future* are blended together, or rather where they were never conceptually separated. For them, dreams occur in the reality of the ancestors (Dreamtime), while our reality is determined by the dreams of the ancestors. The ‘here’ is thus being dreamed from ‘there’ and when they move through what we term past or future, they consider it as simply changing dreams. They do it in the same way as you would change the television channel to watch a science fiction film (future) instead of an historical one (past).
There is something to learn from all these cultures:
From the ones that blossomed in the Andes, Himalayas and Mesoamerica we can learn that time moves in cycles. They are cycles that reveal a hidden pattern of events, while they can also help to predict our most likely actions based on what we did in the past. They are like the day and night, which alternate with great certainty and determine our most likely behaviour: that we will sleep when night falls and then wake up at dawn. It is however our freewill that allows us to remain awake throughout the whole night. This is why cycles influence but do not determine our actions. Our freewill can always break the pattern.
While from those that flourished in Australia―a country inhabited by the oldest cultures on the planet―we can learn that each cycle does not define a period of time but rather a dream. For them, time unfolds according to how we walk across the landscape of the tribe’s, nation’s, or all of humanity’s collective dreams. It unfolds but it also repeats itself as we return to already known places.
Many of the cultures that recognised the circularity of time and space were also aware of this collective or consensual dream we call reality. In the Himalayas it was called «*maya*», and among the Toltecs «*mitote*».
Sacred Time: the Great Cycles
The sacred year
WHEN WE MOVE from mundane time to sacred time, the equivalent cycle to the solar year lasts approximately 26 millennia[. It is the so-called precession of the equinoxes. Due to precession, the constellations of the night sky gradually shift, completing a cycle roughly every 26,000 years. Once this period is completed, we will see the same constellations that we saw one full cycle before, rising on the horizon, on a given day of the year. For example, Aquarius rising in the morning of the Vernal Equinox (March 21st).
The current theory believes that precession is due to the wobbling of the Earth’s axis. It states that the Earth does not simply spin about its axis, completing one rotation each day, but also rotates like a spinning top. The Earth axis perhaps wobbles, but it is my feeling that precession is not so much caused by the wobbling of the Earth axis but by one of the following two:
- the spinning of the Solar System on its axis, or
- the orbit of the Solar System around a binary star.
The first suggested cause of precession is similar to the daily rotation of the Earth on its axis, but applied to the entire Solar System. The second cause is similar to the annual orbit of the Earth around the Sun, which brings about the seasons of the year. Whatever the reason, is clear that in the same way there is a daily cycle of 24 hours with its day and night; and an annual cycle of 365 days, with its seasons; there is another cycle of 26,000 years that also has an effect on us and on our environment.
To simplify the matter, I am going to equate this cycle to the year, meaning that as such it will define different seasons. We will call it the sacred year. This is why to further understand this very important cycle we need too study the nature of its seasons.
The sacred seasons
THE SACRED YEAR defines four points, similar to the two equinoxes and two solstices of the solar year. These points mark the passage of the seasons of humanity’s consciousness in the same way that the equinoxes and solstices mark the change in annual seasons. Each of these points are separated by roughly 6,500 years, a length of time that determines the limits of our collective memory. It is the period that defines what we call recorded history.
The first equinox marks the end of winter and the beginning of the spring of consciousness. The second marks the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. According to the Western esoteric tradition, the transition from the winter to the spring of consciousness occurs when, on the 21st of March (the Vernal Equinox), the constellation of Aquarius rises above the horizon; while the transition from the summer to the autumn of consciousness occurs when, on the same date of March 21st, the Sun rises in front of the constellation of Leo.
The solstices, on the other hand, mark the beginning of the winter and summer of consciousness. Winter is when humanity descends to its greatest degree of materialism, war prevails and we live in disharmony. Summer is when spirituality is dominant; war unknown and we live in harmony. We enter the winter when, on the 21st of March, the Sun rises in front of the constellation of Taurus, and the summer when it rises in front of the constellation of Scorpio.
You might wonder why these four constellations mark the transition between one season of the sacred year and the next? Let me answer this by saying that the four of them define the so-called fixed signs of the zodiac. So it should not surprise us to find these four constellations mentioned three times in the Bible (Ezequiel 1:10, Ezequiel 10:14 and Revelation 4:7). This also explains why the cosmic cross and solar eclipse of August 11th, 1999 was so important for the evolution of human consciousness. Many of us woke up at around this time.
Furthermore, it should be noted that precession, as its name indicates, is a backward movement. This is why the precessional cuspids are located not at the 0 degrees point of the constellation but at its 30 degrees point. This is, they are located between Leo-Virgo, Taurus-Gemini, Aquarius-Pisces, and Scorpio-Sagittarius.
” caption=“” %}}resources/B192F56826A9F4C720AB77DC5CC4A819.png” caption=“Table: four pionts on the sacred year” %}}
Nevertheless, this still does not answer the question: “why these four constellations and not others?” The answer lies in a region of our Galaxy called Galactic Centre. This is, the Sun or our galaxy is located between the constellations of Scorpio and Sagittarius; while Taurus-Gemini define the opposite axis, towards the outer regions of our Galaxy. This arrangement will change over time, as the Solar System―together with all the other starts of our Galaxy―continue their spin around the Galactic Core. It is estimated that it takes 240 million years for the Solar System to complete one orbit, defining a cycle we could call the Great Sacred Year. Nevertheless, it should remain mostly unchanged for at least the next hundred sacred years (2.6 million solar years).
Five seasons to the sacred year
HOWEVER, NOT ALL cultures and civilisations divided the cycle of precession into four seasons; there were some that split it into five, leading to five eras of a little more than 5,000 years each. Among them we find: the Anawak (Maya, Toltec, Aztec), the Inca and the Australian Aborigines.
It is not a division based in the 90 degree angle of a square, but rather in the 72 degree angle of a pentagon. Every 73 days the Sun moves 72 degrees forming a quintile. Why some cultures might have used this different angle to define five seasons in a sacred year?
In astrology, when two or more planets are in quintile (72º) it means that their energies have harmonised and combined as the result of an evolutionary maturing process carried out over many lifetimes. This harmonisation of vibration is usually expressed in a creative manner, given that the quintile is linked with the planet Venus, which governs the process of creativity and creation. How is it linked? Every 584 days Venus passes between us and the Sun. It constitutes the so-called synoptic cycle of Venus. We could say that she kisses us, as this is the moment when the distance between Venus and us is smallest. This phenomenon repeats itself five times every eight years given that 584 x 5 = 8 years. This movement draws a flower with five petals, which I call “*the Flower of Venus*“. From this we see that the geometry of both the pentagon and the pentacle are linked to planet Venus.
Watch this video on YouTube.
Venus rules over the process of harmonic growth in nature. It rules proportion and balance. It should not surprise us that her rhythms are marked out by the Fibonacci series. In this sequence each number is determined by adding the preceding one to the next number, thus obtaining: 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21, (given that 0+1=1, 1+1=2, 1+2=3, 2+3=5, etc). In the same way, Venus makes 13 orbits around the Sun in the same time the Earth makes 8 orbits. And during these 8 years the Sun, Venus and Earth will have aligned themselves a total of 5 times. As it can be observed, 5, 8 and 13 are all numbers from the Fibonacci sequence.
When expressed in terms of time, we find the Fibonacci numbers in the reproductive pattern of bees and rabbits. When expressed in space, we find it in the golden number, also known as the golden ratio or Phi (ɸ), which governs nature. The Fibonacci sequence tends towards Phi as 8/5≈13/8≈21/13≈ … = ɸ; while Phi found in the proportions of the vertices of both the pentagon and the pentacle.
The human hand is an expression of this pentacle where, with its five fingers, the golden ratio is present once again in the proportions of each of the three finger phalanges (bones). The hand―in the same way as the quintile―becomes an expression of our creative potential. It denotes our ability to emulate nature. It is a creative process guided by Venusian influence.
Therefore, it can be said that the division of the sacred year in five Ages of 5,000 years each results from the sectioning of the ecliptic in the five petals of the Flower of Venus. Such approach does not oppose on Era to the other, in the way Summer is opposed to Winter or Leo to Aquarius. Instead, it focuses on the evolutionary steps defined by the 72 degrees of the quintile. It is an arrangement used by the Anawak, Inca, Australian Aborigines and by the Ancient Greec poet Hesiod when he talked about the five Ages of Man (*Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic *and Iron).
The Incas and the Mayas (*Anawak), *say we are just now completing the fourth Sun and entering into the fifth. For the Incas, each Sun lasts 5,000 years, and for the Maya 5,125 years. The Aztecs (Anawak) consider that we are finishing the fifth Sun, based on a duration of 5,200 years per Era. They consider we are about to return to the first Sun, thus completing a whole precession cicle of 26,000 years . Among the Australian Aborigines it is said that the Solar System enters a new *Dreamtrack *every 5,000 years, a new vibrational frequency. So, for all these cultures and civilizations every five millennia a new Sun emerges, a new world is born, or a new Dreamtrack is entered. This does not mean that the previous world is destroyed, rather that the vibrational frequency of the planet and Solar System changes.
The allegory of the dream helps us to understand why our memory does not seem to go beyond the last 5,000 to 6,500 years, a period termed recorded history. In the same way that when we change dream at night, we forget what we were dreaming just before; when we change “mitote or “*dreamtrack*” we also tend to forget our previous collective dream. We forget it only in winter because during the spring and summer of the *sacred year *both types of dreams are remembered: our night dreams and the collective ones.
The Sacred Months
IN ORDER TO explain the concept of the sacred month, we must return to the four seasons of the cycle of precession, determined by the two equinoxes and two solstices. Currently, we are crossing the equinox that marks the transition from the winter to the spring of consciousness. The winter we just left behind was called The Iron Age in the Greek tradition and *Kali Yuga *(The Dark Age) in the Hindu tradition. According to Hinduism, we entered it just over 5,000 years ago, after the death of Krishna in the year 3112 BC. At that time the constellation of Taurus was rising on the horizon during the spring equinox of the 21st of March.
It is from this that Krishna received the names Govinda and Gopala, in a reference to his role as a cowherd[. After Taurus we entered Aries, whose symbol is no longer the bull but rather the ram. It should not therefore surprise us that the Old Testament of the Bible, written during this astrological era, does not use the allegory of the cow but rather that of the sheep and flock . The New Testament on the other hand was written during the astrological era of Pisces, hence Jesus took fishermen for disciples, he multiplied fish, and the first Christians identified themselves by drawing a fish in the sand. Why then does the Bible refer to Jesus, during his second coming, as the Son of Man? Because this second coming is expected during the Age of Aquarius, the only sign of the zodiac represented by a human rather than an animal.
After Aquarius will come Capricorn, followed by Sagittarius and Scorpio since the precession movement is retrograde (backwards). Between Sagittarius and Scorpio we find Ophiuchus, the thirteenth constellation. Ophiuchus has the shape of a Serpent and it points to the centre of our Galaxy, the Great Sun. We therefore enter the summer of the soul when Ophiuchus rises above the horizon during the vernal equinox, when the Sun of our Galaxy rises above the horizon on that day.
We can thus see how the astrological eras form a set of sacred months, which define the symbols used to channel and integrate the experiences brought by each season of the sacred year. With Ophiuchus, there are thirteen constellations in the ecliptic, in the same way that:
- The solar year has approximately thirteen lunar months;
- Venus orbits the Sun thirteen times in five years; and
- The human body has thirteen major joints in five limbs (if the head is included).
We have three major joints in each arm (shoulder, elbow and wrist) and three in each leg (hip, knee and ankle). Similarly, the twelve constellations of the zodiac are grouped around four elements: three to fire (Aries, Leo and Sagittarius), three to *water *(Cancer, **Scorpio **and Pisces), three to *air *(Gemini, Libra and Aquarius) and three to *earth *(Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn). They form the four limbs of the celestial body, each one with three sections or joints. Ophiuchus on the other hand―the thirteenth constellation― symbolises the neck, which connects body and head.
When the thirteenth constellation was forgotten at the beginning of the Iron Age, the head of the celestial body was literally amputated. Given that the microcosmos is a reflection of the macrocosmos, the human soul was also beheaded. Without it, our soul lost its higher senses. It lost the ability to clearly see (clairvoyance); to clearly hear (clairaudience); to taste the nectar of immortality; to perceive the subtle fragrances that surround us whenever we return from a state of mystical ecstasy; and to touch the intangible. Lacking its senses, every time the soul entered communion with Spirit, we fell into an unconscious state of deep sleep. It is a state where the soul experiences mystical ecstasy, required to recharge ourselves with energy, but which isn’t remembered. It is not recorded because we have identified ourselves so much with the mind that when it goes to sleep, we fall unconscious.
As we enter the spring of consciousness (Age of Aquarius), we will begin to identify less with the body-mind and more with the Spirit. The non- identification with the body will help us to remember our dreams. This means that each time the body goes to sleep, we will not fall into a subconscious state of mind, but rather will still be able to maintain uninterrupted awareness. While the non-identification with the mind will help us to recall the experience of spiritual ecstasy that everybody experiences at night. This means that when the mind goes to sleep, we will not fall into an unconscious state, with no-one to witness the experience: our Spirit is the one. Spirit will be present, witnessing it and not forgetting it because our awareness will be in the Spirit and not in the Body-Mind stuff.
During the long winter months that we are just leaving behind, darkness ruled. It was an inner darkness. The Sun of the galaxy, which illuminates our consciousness, was always there. It was present and yet our headless soul could not contemplate it. With the transition into Aquarius after Pisces the winter is over, and a new spring starts. During the following six or seven sacred months we will regain full consciousness of our capabilities, we will regain our full potential as angels of light.
The sacred day
THERE WERE ALSO many cultures that never forgot another minor cycle, which I will call the sacred day. This cycle governs the rise and fall of civilisations. It lasts approximately 13 thousand lunar months, or to be more precise 12,863 full moons, adding up to a total of 1040 years. It constitutes the synchronisation period between: the solar year (365.242264 days), the lunar month (29.530589) and the day. As a sacred day, it has a diurnal phase, which lasts around 520 years, and a nocturnal phase of equal duration. A Toltec or Aztec Era of 5,200 years is thus made out of 5 of such days.
The sacred day governs the rise and fall of civilisations in the same way as when the Sun rises in one part of the planet, night falls in the other. Therefore, not all the cultures and civilisations are on the same point of the cycle. Some cultures will enter their civilisational day when others see night to fall upon them.
The sacred day was recorded in the myth of the Phoenix, the bird that is reborn from its ashes 500 years after its death to live another 500 years, after which it will cast itself into its funeral pyre. The myth was inherited by the ancient Greeks from the Egyptian Bennu, and is also found in other cultures such as the Persian. It is a reference to the five centuries of light and splendour usually experienced by a civilisation, before it declines not to re-emerge until five centuries later.
For the Hebrews, a thousand years constitutes one of Yahweh’s days, the result of the ten units of the decimal system (10 fingers) to the cube (3 dimensions). It symbolises the number of perfection, the number that completes a cycle.
The Incas considered that every certain period of time a ‘*pachacuti*’ occurred. The word pachacuti means time-space (pacha) turned upside down (cuti). They considered that every 12 hours, with the sunrise and sunset of the day, a very minor pachacuti occurs as light gives way to darkness or the opposite. Then, every 500 years a major pachacuti also takes place, as the night of the sacred day gives rise to the new dawn of the culture or vice versa. And like the cogs of a clock, every 5,000 years, during the 10th pachacuti of the 500-year cycle, a major one will take place as we move from one Sun or sacred season into the next.
They consider that the 9th pachacuti took place when Pizarro invaded Peru in 1526, and the 10th pachacuti that ends the current fourth Sun is happening as we speak.
And finally, every 25,000 years a very large one―equivalent to the Great Deluge of antiquity―also comes about. The Incas called the last one «*Unu Pachacuti*», with ‘*unu*’ meaning water. Luckily this one came about during the last sacred autumn, when we moved from Leo to Cancer, so hopefully a similar event is not expected for at least 14,000 years.
As it can be appreciated, all the cogs in this cosmic clock are based on multiples of five, all divide the cogs in quintiles, on the shape of the pentagon and the orbit of Venus in relationship to the Sun and the Earth.
The sacred hour
THE ANAWAK CIVILISATION includes cultures such as the Olmec, Mayan, Toltec or Aztec. Their numerical system was vigesimal, this is, it was based on the number 20. Their vigesimal system is reflected in calendar based on the combination of 13 numerals and 20 glyphs. Since 20 times 13 is 260, the glyphs and numerals create a 260-day cycle called Tzol’kin, when referring to the Mayan version, or Tonalpohualli by the Aztecs.
The 260-day cycle synchronises with the 365-day calendar (Haab) every 52 years. That is to say: after 52 solar years, an exact 73 cycles of 260 days will have been completed. This period of 52 years was widely used by the different cultures of the Anawak civilisation because it helped them to synchronise different celestial events.
- For example, the lesser planets (Mercury, Venus and Mars) will go back to the same position in relation to their orbits around the Sun every 468 years (52×9). We already mentioned the 1040 year period (52×20), which is the most accurate soli-lunar cycle known.
- Furthermore, 1040 years is the period of time necessary to synchronise the vague solar calendar  (Haab)―a calendar with no leap-year― with the Tonal calendar of 260-days (Tzol’kin or *Tonalpowalli). *
- Third, 2080 years (52×40) is the synchronisation period of the rise of Venus, as the bright morning star, with the solar cycle. That is to say, after 2080 years Venus will rise again as the bright star of the morning at the same time of the year.
This sacred cycle was so important to the different cultures of the Anawak that they called it a “new fire”. The ceremony of the “new fire” was carried out every year, at around mid November, when the Pleyades were at its zenithal point. Larger celebrations took place every four and thirteen years. But the most important commemoration was every 52 years. At that time they will put out all the fires of the kingdom and destroy all the idols and temples to rebuild them again in a sign of devotion. Then the High Priest performed the ritual to light a new fire and out of this one, all the rest of the fires will be ignited.
To count in blocks of 52 years was easy because every 52 years the same combination of glyph and numeral will repeat itself. For example, if one year was called 1-Cane (e.g. 1987) 52 years latter it will be again a year 1-Cane (e.g. 2039). They called each period a ‘tie’ (atadura in Spanish).
These sacred hours of 52 years help us to determine the time of important events. For example, between 1968 and 1972 it was the time when the pillars upon which the Era of 5,200 years that is just finishing now were merging together. If we add 52 years to these dates, we get 2020-24. It is therefore foreseeable that the pillars of the New Era we are now entering will start manifesting with more strength during this four year period.
**More information in “*The Pillars of a New Era*”.
I thank Neil Sadler for his assistance in translating the article from its original version in Spanish to English. As it always happens, when correcting the translation I ended up adding extra information to the English version that it is not in the Spanish original.
2011, Marc Torra (Urus) for mastay.info
- Anawak refers to what is currently known as Mesoamerica and includes many of the cultures that flourished there such as the Olmec, Maya, Toltec (which is said not to be a culture but rather a state of being), Mixtec, and Aztec. ↑
<li id="fn:fn2">The number is approximate, given that the speed of the precession is not constant, but it is estimated to be between 25,700 and 26,000 years. <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn2">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn3">Constellations drawn in 1690 by Johannes Hevelius. Public Domain. <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn3">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn4">People wrongly talk about the sixth Sun, but it is more correct to speak of the first Sun (sacred month) of a new cycle (sacred year). It seems to me that it is wrong to keep on adding suns after the fifth as this reflects the influence of a linear perception of time. <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn4">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn5">The sign of Taurus also exists in the Vedic astrology practised in India; the twelve constellations of Babylonian astrology were adopted by Vedic astrology during the era of Alexander the Great, 2800 years after the death of Krishna. <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn5">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn6">For example “*for this is what the Sovereign Lord says: I myself will search for my sheep and look after them*” (Ezekiel 34:11) <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn6">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn7">The result of multiplying the exact solar year by 1040 and dividing it by the synodic cycle of the moon gives us 12862.99960 lunar months, an error of one hour and 40 minutes in 1040 years. Two other important solar-lunar cycles are that of 1260 years, and that of 2300 years, the difference between them being 1040 (2300-1260=1040). These two cycles appear repeatedly in the Bible, both in the Old Testament (Daniel 7:25,12:7, 8:14) and in the New Testament (Revelation 11:2-3, 12:6, 12:14, 13:5). They do it in days, a number which is translated into years when it comes to interpreting the prophecies. Other times it appears in months (e.g. 42 months of 30 days are 1260 days) and other times in a cryptic form (e.g. time, times, and half of a time. A time refers to 12 months of 30 days = 360 days. Times refers to two times (360 days x 2 = 720 days) and half of a time to 180 days, therefore: 360+720+180=1260\. <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn7">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn8"> he adjective vague is used with the imprecise solar calendar of 365 days in order to differentiate it from the adjusted calendar to which leap-years are added. In this way, each year of the vague calendar is 6 hours short, which add up to 13 days after 52 years. After twenty cycles of 52 years the 13 days become 20×13=260 days. This number of days corresponds to one year of the Tonalpowalli or Tzol’kin, the sacred calendar, thus allowing the two calendars to synchronise. We should bear in mind that if we use a vigesimal system (base 20), 1040 years adds up to 20 new fires, as a new fire of 52 years is the cycle directly inferior to that of 1040 years, in the same way that in the decimal calendar (base 10) a century (100 years or 10 squared) corresponds to the cycle directly inferior to a millennium in that base (1000 years or 10 to the cube). <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn8">↑</a></li> <li id="fn:fn9">According to what Frank Diaz tell us in “El Calendario de Anahuac” the vague years were used to measure the movements of Venus and the long cycles, while the corrected years after a leap-year were used to stay in synch with the seasons. They were used to forecast harvests, record history, predict bundles (when several planets group together), and determine the galactic tone and birth date of new borns. <a class="footnote-return" href="#fnref:fn9">↑</a></li>